scroll to top
Stuck on your essay?
Get ideas from this essay and see how your work stacks up
Word Count: 2,535
Bioremediation of Explosives in Contaminated Soil Abstract TNT is not the kind of substance that most people think of composting but it can be done At several US Army depots the water used in processing explosives was disposed of through evaporation from unlined lagoons This has resulted in sediments and soils that are contaminated with TNT 246- trinitrotoluene and its derivatives RDX hexahydro-135-trinitro-135-triazine and HMX octahydro-1357-tetranitro-1357-tetraazocine One way of cleaning up these sediments is by incinerating them A less expensive and more environmentally friendly method is bioremediation or use of natural biological and chemical processes to degrade the contaminants Thats where composting comes in TNT RDX and HMX are complex organic compounds made up of carbon nitrogen oxygen and hydrogen When combined with more conventional compost ingredients such as manures sawdust straw and fruit and vegetable processing wastes the explosives become broken down into harmless chemical forms The Army is using composting to clean up munitions processing wastes at several of its ammunition plants including ones in Louisiana Wisconsin and Oregon At the Oregon site composting is projected to save 26 million dollars compared with incinerating the contaminated soils In addition to saving money composting will also avoid the need for burning fossil fuels and will produce an end product usable for backfilling landscaping or erosion control Introduction Whether people know it or not explosives such as tnt are a very important part of their lives Since World War I munitions have been manufactured in the United States using a variety of energetic materials including propellants explosives and pyrotechnic PEP materials Noyes 1996 Many manufacturing sites contain explosives As a result they have contaminated soil because of prior and existing operations These contaminated soils are can be very toxic and mutagenic It is estimated that the US Army has 40 sites requiring cleanup of explosives-contaminated soilsNoyes 1996 Currently regulatory agencies only approve incineration and composting as decontamination technologies Incineration
@Kibin is a lifesaver for my essay right now!!
- Sandra Slivka, student @ UC Berkeley
Wow, this is the best essay help I've ever received!
- Camvu Pham, student @ U of M
If I'd known about @Kibin in college, I would have gotten much more sleep
- Jen Soust, alumni @ UCLA