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Andrew Carnegie was born in Dunfermline Scotland on November 15 1835 He was the first son of William Carnegie a linen weaver and local leader of the Chartists who sought to improve the conditions of working-class life in Great Britain and of Margaret Carnegie daughter of Thomas Morrison a shoemaker and political and social reformer William Carnegies handloom business dwindled in the wake of industrialization and in 1848 the family emigrated to the United States settling in Allegheny Pennsylvania There at the age of 13 Andrew began his career as bobbin boy in a cotton factory A voracious reader he took advantage of the generosity of an Allegheny citizen who opened his library to local working boys Books provided most of his education as he moved from being a Western Union messenger boy to telegraph operator and then to a series of positions leading to superintendent of the Western Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad While still employed by the railroad Mr Carnegie invested in a new company to manufacture railway sleeping cars From there he expanded his business ventures to encompass the building of bridges locomotives and rails In 1865 he organized the first of his many companies the Keystone Bridge Company and in 1873 the first of his steel works Mr Carnegies companies were founded not as stock corporations but as partnerships in line with his philosophy that it shall be the rule for the workman to be Partner with Capital the man of affairs giving his business experience the working man in the mill his mechanical skill to the company both owners of the shares and so far equally interested in the success of their joint efforts As associates Mr Carnegie attracted young men with exceptional talent for organization and management The steel company prospered and when Mr Carnegie sold out to JP Morgan in 1901 the Carnegie Company was valued at 400 million It figured prominently in the newly formed United
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