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Frederick Barbarossa like other men of his age was influenced by a growing resurgence of neoclassical sensibilities It should not therefore be considered surprising that he would have considered himself ruling as Frederick by the grace of God emperor of the Romans and august foreverA letter to Otto of Freisling He like other leaders before and since saw and welcomed the prestige and sense of legitimacy offered by the title of Roman Emperor To achieve this kings since the time of Charlamegne had often traveled to Rome in order to be crowned Emperor The pope as heir to the Church of Constantine provided the symbolic link between the Roman past and the present Empire It was in this light that in 1154 Frederick entered Italy to be crowned in Rome and assert his domination over Northern Italy as such His subsequent involvement in Italy was to bring him and his family line into conflicts which would have severe effects on the future of the Hohenstaufen line and the German Monarchy As a result at a time when other dominant royal families were laying the cornerstones of powerful national monarchies Hohenstaufen power and the Holy Empire crumbled Frederick Barbarossas mother Judith was a Guelph Frederick acted as a mediator between his Hohenstaufen uncle Conrad and his Guelph cousin Henry the Lion Prior to his death Conrad III named Frederick as his successor hoping that Fredericks reign would end the discord between the rival houses of Hohenstaufen and Guelphs In 1152 Frederick pacified Germany by proclaiming a general land peace to end the anarchy and in 1156 he satisfied Henry the Lion by restoring the duchy of Bavaria to him at the same time making Austria into a new duchy as a counterweight to Henrys power In Italy Fredericks policy was to restore
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