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Johannes Kepler was born at 230 PM on December 27 1571 in Weil der Stadt Wrttemburg in the Holy Roman Empire His family was Lutheran and he adhered to the Augsburg Confession This adherence later caused him hardships He was a sickly child and his parents were poor But his evident intelligence earned him a scholarship to the University of Tbingen There he was introduced to and delighted in the ideas of Copernicus In 1596 while a mathematics teacher in Graz he wrote the first outspoken defense of the Copernican system the Mysterium Cosmographicum Kepler was forced to leave his teaching post at Graz due to the counter Reformation because he was Lutheran and moved to Prague to work with the renowned Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe He inherited Tychos post as Imperial Mathematician when Tycho died in 1601 Using the precise data that Tycho had collected Kepler discovered that the orbit of Mars was an ellipse In 1609 he published Astronomia Nova delineating his discoveries which are now called Keplers first two laws of planetary motion This work established Kepler as the father of modern science documenting how for the first time a scientist dealt with a multitude of imperfect data to arrive at a fundamental law of nature In 1612 Lutherans were forced out of Prague so Kepler moved on to Linz His wife and two sons had recently died He remarried happily but had many personal and financial troubles Two infant daughters died and Kepler had to return to Wrttemburg where he successfully defended his mother against charges of witchcraft In 1619 he published Harmonices Mundi in which he describes his third law In spite of more forced relocations Kepler published the seven-volume Epitome Astronomiae in 1621 This was his most influential work and discussed all of heliocentric astronomy in a systematic way He then went on to complete the Rudolphine Tables that Tycho had started long ago These included calculations using logarithms
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