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Robert Rauschenberg Robert Rauschenberg was born Milton Rauschenberg on October 22 1925 in Port Arthur Texas He began to study pharmacology at the University of Texas at Austin before being drafted into the United States navy where he served as a neuropsychiatric technician in the navy hospital in San Diego In 1947 he enrolled at the Kansas City Art Institute and traveled to Paris to study at the Acadmie Julian the following year In the fall of 1948 he returned to the United States to study under Josef Albers at Black Mountain College near Asheville North Carolina which he continued to attend until 1952 While taking classes at the Art Students League New York from 1949 to 1951 Rauschenberg was offered his first solo exhibition at the Betty Parsons Gallery Some of the works from this period included blueprints fluent white paintings and black paintings From the fall of 1952 to the spring of 1953 he traveled to Europe and North Africa with Cy Twombly who he had met at the Art Students League During his travels Rauschenberg worked on a series of small collages hanging assemblages and small boxes filled with found elements which he exhibited in Rome and Florence Upon his return to New York in 1953 Rauschenberg completed his series of black paintings using newspaper as the ground and began work on sculptures created from wood stones and other materials found on the streets paintings made with tissue paper dirt or gold leaf and more conceptually oriented works such as Automobile Tire Print and Erased de Kooning Drawing By the end of 1953 he had began his Red Painting series on canvases that incorporated newspapers fabric and found objects and moved in 1954 into the Combines a term Rauschenberg coined for his wellknown works that integrated aspects of painting and sculpture and would often include such objects as a stuffed eagle or goat
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