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Word Count: 537
The bacteria Myxococcus Xanthus is a decomposer that moves and forms fruiting bodies to reproduce These fruiting bodies are mounds that grow into mushroom cloud like bodies where cells differentiate on the inside to form small spores that are heat and desiccation resistant In her discussion of Myxococcus Xanthus Dr Hartzell addresses various complexes that make flagella-less movement possible for the bacteria The researchers traced cell movements and found that Myxococcus Xanthus moves at a rate of 25 micrometers per minute A rate that is slower than continental drift 3 micrometers per minute Cell movements occur in two different forms social moving in groups of cells and adventurous individuals moving Movement is found to be gene determined Two genes were found to be required for any movement mgl A and mgl B Furthermore there are specific genes required for social movement and specific genes required for adventurous movement Mgl A a magnesium dependant is a GTP-ase a protein that binds and cleaves GTP to GDP like Ras It was found that mgl A was necessary for development of the fruiting body and for movement but not for growth of the cell When mgl A binds to GDP it is inactive However when it binds GTP it is active Then mgl A was sequenced and found to have one of the Aspartine amino acids exchanged for a Threonine If mgl A was mutated to replace Threonine with Asoartine the way it is in most Ras proteins no movement or formation of the fruiting body occurred Also induced activation of this protein forcing GTP to bind to it causes movement but not development of the fruiting body The calcium dependent mgl B protein is also required for movement Found right next to mgl A and transcribed at the same time mgl B is believed to be a guanyl nucleotide release factor REM for short REMs facilitate the release of GDP from Ras type proteins mgl A so
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