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History October 1 1949 The Peoples Republic of China was formed with its nationalist capital at Beijing 4 social classes Workers Peasants the petite bourgeoisie and the National-Capitalist which were led by CCP In February 1950 after months of hard bargaining China and the Soviet Union signed the Treaty of Friendship Alliance and Mutual Assistance valid until 1980 The pact also was intended to counter Japan or any powers joining Japan for the purpose of aggression By 1950 international recognition of the Communist government had increased considerably but it was slowed by Chinas involvement in the Korean War June 28 1950 Agrarian Land Reform Redistribution of the land class struggle landlords and wealthy peasants An ideological reform campaign requiring self-criticisms and public confessions by university faculty members scientists and other professional workers was given wide publicity Artists and writers were soon the objects of similar treatment for failing to heed Maos dictum that culture and literature must reflect the class interest of the working people led by the CCP 1951-1952 San Fan or three anti and Wu Fan or five anti movements The San Fan was directed against the evils of corruption waste and bureaucratism its real aim was to eliminate incompetent and politically unreliable public officials and to bring about an efficient disciplined and responsive bureaucratic system The Wu fan movement aimed at eliminating recalcitrant and corrupt businessmen and industrialists who were in effect the targets of the CCPs condemnation of tax evasion bribery cheating in government contracts thefts of economic intelligence and stealing of state assets In the course of this campaign the party claimed to have uncovered a well-organized attempt by businessmen and industrialists to corrupt party and government officials This charge was enlarged into an assault on the bourgeoisie as a whole The number of people affected by the various punitive or reform campaigns was estimated in the millions The period of officially designated transition to socialism corresponded
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