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Word Count: 310
he period of the Warring States Zhanguo or Chan-Kuo refers to the era of about 475 BCE to 221 BCE It commenced at a time of when the numerous petty city-state kingdoms had been consolidated into about seven major contenders and a few minor enclaves The above map shows a delineation of the area The exact description of the states is subject to some uncertainty and the above map is based upon the map of the Warring States given in China Empire and Civilization edited by Edward L Shaughnessy and published by Oxford University Press in 2000 on page 27 Actually there was a larger state of Jin which broke up into the states of Han Wu and Zhao There was to the south the state of Chu and to the east the states of Qi and Yan These states Han Wu Zhao Chu Qi and Yan were thought to be the six major contenders for domination As it turned out it was the state of Qin in the west that emerged victorious Qin was not only not initially considered one of the contenders it was not even considered fully Chinese It had barbarian roots But that is a subject for later Advances in military technology gave superiority to larger states with the resources to take advantage of the newer technology Part of this technology was the casting of individual weapons which allowed the arming of foot soldiers In previous eras the fighting was done by aristocrats in chariots Chariots were not produced on a mass production basis so participation in the battles was limited to a small proportion of the population the ruling elite of the city-states But with the development of the casting of individual weapons there was a marked advantage to states with the economic resources to produce the weapons and the population to provide large armies to use these weapons
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