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10Introduction Management is different from leadership although they are often used interchangeably The definition of management is the attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning organization leading and controlling organizational resources Daft 2003 5 And the definition of leadership is an influence relationship among leaders and followers who intend real changes that reflect their shared purposesSmith Peterson 1988 14 The difference between management and leadership are compared in Figure 11 Comparing Management and Leadership Source Adapted from Richard L Daft 1999 Leadership Theory and Practice USA Harcourt Inc 39 Management produces a degree of stability predictability order and efficiency Leadership on the other hand creates change often to a dramatic degree Daft 1999 45 Leadership should be in addition to management and the schools of management thinking have great impact and contribution to the different leadership theories 20The Evolution of Management thinking and its contribution to leadership theory The practice of management can be traced to 3000 BC to the first government organizations developed by the Sumerians and Egyptians but the formal study of management is relatively recent Daniel A Wren 1987 The development of management thinking is the result of impact of the social political and economic forces In other words its the outcome of the changing external and internal environment The evolution of management thought through the decades is showed in Figure 21 Figure 21 Source Adapted from Bateman Thomas S Scott A Snell 1996 Management building competitive advantage 3rd ed USA Irwin 31 The management perspective is divided into two major parts classical approaches and contemporary approaches Many of these approaches developed simultaneously and they often had a significant impact on one another Some approaches were a direct reaction to the perceived deficiencies of previous approaches Others developed as
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