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Sigmund Freud was born in Frieberg Moravia in 1856 but when he was four years old his family moved to Vienna Freud introduced the psychoanalytic approach to therapy known as Psychoanalysis to the world In the early 1900s Freud studied people and their neurotic disorders He developed his own way of treating these disorders this was known as Free Association Hayes 1994 The concept of Free-Association is the name given to what happened when a patient looks at particular images and expresses in their own words what each picture means to them no matter how out of the ordinary He also noticed that minor slips of the tongue this is where the term Freudian slips comes from could also be monitored as this was also part of the unconscious mind Freud believed that Free-Association often revealed hidden memories from childhood experiences The patient would have difficulty remembering this experience but by use of Free Association he would encourage the patient to remember this and help them come to terms with it Walmsley 2003 Freud received criticism from many other psychologists most notably Eysenck Eysenck surveyed numerous reports related to Freuds psychotherapy experiments and compared them to results from Eclectic Therapy He concluded There appears to be an inverse correlation between recovery rate and psychotherapy the more psychotherapy received the smaller the recovery rate Walmsley 2003 It is widely argued that Freuds methods are not very reliable His theories cannot be proved wrong so cannot be classed as scientific theories But he only used mentally ill patients in his experiments so they cannot be proved right either His theory is based on only a very small group of people Hayes 1990 Therefore the question of the therapeutic effectiveness of psychoanalysis remains an open and controversial one Freud designed a model of personality which arranged the three phases of personality into which he discovered that this method often revealed it was the only form of personality
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