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Genetic EngineeringBioengineering or genetic engineering is an altering ofgenes in a particular species for a particular outcomeIt involves taking genes from their normal location in oneorganism and either transferring them elsewhere or puttingthem back into the original organism in different combinationsMost biomolecules exist in low concentrations and as complex mixedpopulations which it is not possible to work efficiently This problemwas solved in 1970 using a bug Escherichia coli a normally innocuouscommensal occupant of the human gut By inserting a piece of DNA of interestinto a vector molecule a molecule with a bacterial origin of replication whenthe whole recombinant construction is introduced into a bacterial colonies allderived from a single original cell bearing the recombinant vector in a shorttime a large amount of DNA of interest is produced This can be purified fromcontaminating bacterial DNA easily and the resulting product is said to have been cloned So far scientists have used genetic engineering to produce for example improve vaccines against animal diseases such as footrot and pig scours pure human products such as insulin and human growth hormone in commercial quantities existing antibiotics by more economical methods new kinds of antibiotics not otherwise available plants with resistance to some pesticides insects and diseases plants with improved nutritional qualities to enhance livestock productivity Methods Manipulation of the Gene pool which is related to Hybridization which is the breeding of species but the species are not the same but they are related Chain reaction is the production of many identical copies of a particular DNA fragment The utility of cloning is important it provides the ability to determine the genetic organization of particular regions or whole genome However it also facilitates the production of naturally-occurring and artificially-modified biological products by the expression of cloned genes Insertion of selectable marker genes to pick out recombinant molecules containing foreign inserts Removal or creation of useful sites for cloning Insertion of sequences which not only allow but greatly increase
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