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The Re-use of Classical Antiquities in Later Structuresa Aims and SignificanceAntique building materials statuary and bas-reliefs were re-used throughout the Middle Ages not only for convenience but also because of the political messages they could convey I have demonstrated this in my The Survival of Roman Antiquities in Mediaeval Europe London 1989 288 pp and in papers presented at conferences in Venice and Rome as well as in contributions in 1984 and 1985 to two volumes of Einaudis Storia dellArte Italiana In these publications I wrote in general terms and also with specific reference to Western Europe especially Italy and France Why concentrate on fortifications This topic not only narrows the focus and geographic range from that of my 1989 book but has strong internal justifications a often from Greek times fortifications were acknowledged as the main means of displaying a citys pride to those who approached it b fortification sites have not changed significantly down the centuries hence later fortifications tend simply to remodel and build on top of earlier ones - so that the evidence still remains to be seen c because of their privileged location guard castles have often not been demolished for building stone d city walls have frequently survived in whole or in part in Turkey - whereas most in Western Europe were demolished in the 19th20th centuries to accommodate increased population levels Study tours of Western Turkey in 1989 1990 1991 1992 convinced me that a the re-use of antiquities could best be studied on the ground in Turkey because of the plentiful supply of antique sites almost untouched by population expansion and indistrialisation and therefore offering prime evidence - whereas in Western Europe documentary evidence had to be used as a substitute b re-use is not restricted to people from the same broad culture because Islam apparently prized antiquities including some figured ones just as much as the descendants of the Romans c importantly the time-span available
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