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Memory is the process of storing and retrieving information in the brain Memory is viewed as a three-step process which include sensory memory short-term memory and long-term memory Along with memory there is also forgetting There are two types of forgetting availability and accessibilitySensory memory is memory that continues the sensation of a stimulus after that stimulus ends The two major types of sensory memory are iconic and echoic Iconic memory occurs when a visual stimulus produces a brief memory trace This is called an icon Echoic memory is the brief registration of sounds or echos in memory A major factor that influences what will be remembered is attention Close attention enhances memory by focusing on a limited range of stimuli The capacity for sensory memory is very small The duration for icons lasts about a half of a second Echoes lasts for around four seconds Short-term memory holds information for fairly short intervals Its duration ranges from 15 to no more than 30 seconds The capacity of short-term memory is very limited due to the studies of memory span The 3 basic processes studied with memory are encoding storage and retrieval They all have an impact on short-term memory Encoding is acoustic where remembering has to do with acquiring the information in the beginning It also can be visual The next aspect is storage In order to increase ones storage ability one must be familiar with chunking Chunking allows a person to remember more information By repeating an item over and over again ones memory can be increased by a method called rehearsal The third process is retrieval With retrieval one can scan memory in order to retrieve items Long-term memory is another type of memory where materials are stored for a much longer time They can be stored as long as a lifetime Long-term storage is more likely to be achieved when smaller amounts of information are used The main forms
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