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Advantages and Disadvantages of and IQ What is intelligence Sattler describes a famous symposium conducted in 1921 at which 13 psychologists gave 13 different definitions of intelligence 1992 pp 44-45 Some of these definitions are paraphrased below Intelligence is the tendency to take and maintain a direction judgment otherwise called good sense practical sense initiative everything intellectual can be reduced to relations or correlates adjustment or adaptation to the environment global capacity to act purposefully think rationally and deal effectively the ability to plan and structure behavior the process of acquiring storing retrieving comparing memory the ability to solve genuine problems or difficulties You can see that we still have not reached a common definition There are other approaches to intelligence We have studied Piaget who believed that intelligence represents the biological adaptation of an individual to the environment Piaget suggests that intelligence increases as children develop especially from birth through age five Other kinds of intelligence might include social intelligence--the ability to get along well in society Taylor 1990 and survival intelligence--the ability to survive Certainly the ability to survive in a wilderness will be different from the ability to survive in an inner city but I expect both calls for similar capabilities In school settings psychologists often joke that IQ is what IQ tests measure There is a lot of truth to this adage Ideally IQ tests sample a wide range of experiences and they measure a persons ability to apply learned information in new and different ways They do not measure capacity or potential They do provide information about cognitive skills at a given point in time Because IQ tests chiefly measure success in school they are value-laden Scores provide a statistical indication of the extent to which a person has critical schools and information but they should
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