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Exhaust Systems The exhaust system on a car is the most important device to keep our environment clean Many exhaust emissions from the engine such as water oxygen nitrogen and carbon dioxide are of little concern Others such as hydrocarbons HC oxides of nitrogen NO and carbon monoxide CO can cause environmental and health problems if not controlled Hydrocarbon emissions react with sunlight which cause photochemical smog The exhaust system controls these the best possible way These emissions leave the engine and travel down the exhaust ports and into the exhaust manifolds Then the gases travel though the exhaust pipe catalytic converter and muffler Then the filtered emissions leave though the resonator if used and the tailpipe There are two types of exhaust systems The single exhaust system and the dual exhaust system The single exhaust system as shown in diagram below consists of only one exhaust pipe This system unlike the dual exhaust system contains two oxygen sensors These oxygen sensors detect the amount of oxygen in the exhaust A lean air-fuel mixture contains an excess amount of oxygen after combustion A rich air-fuel mixture contains very little oxygen When the oxygen sensor detects this it creates a high amount of voltage which the electronic control unit ECU detects and compares it to the reference voltage and then creates a lean air-fuel mixture The single exhaust system pipe converter and muffler are sized in proportion to the engine displacement The duel exhaust system consists of two separate exhaust systems each equipped with their own catalyst converter and muffler Duel exhaust systems can expel more exhaust quicker then a single exhaust system which decreases back pressure but increases loudness Back pressure is when the cylinders have trouble clearing themselves during the exhaust stroke When the flow of exhaust is restricted this can reduce engine power and mileage and even cause the exhaust vales to burn Duel exhaust systems have many different
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