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Word Count: 2,454
The natural method of reproduction has become only one of many new techniques used today There are millions of couples that do not have the ability to reproduce on their own because of infertility and therefore must resort to these new techniques The main causes of infertility are that of hormonal malfunctions and anatomical abnormalities There are many ethical debates on whether artificial means of reproduction should be used and this will be discussed throughout the paper There are a number of reproduction-aiding technologies which are widely used all over the world and one being artificial insemination This is a relatively simple and old method where semen is mechanically introduced into the vagina near the cervix There are two types of artificial insemination AIH sperm actually belongs to the husband and AID sperm belongs to a sperm donor AID has a 60 success rate which is very good Another reproduction-aiding technology is In Vitro Fertilization IVF whereby so-called test-tube babies are conceived The egg and sperm are collected from the male and female of a couple and are then mixed outside the body usually in a glass dish If all goes well fertilization will occur within 24 hours after the sperm and egg are mixed Two days after fertilization the fertilized egg develops into an embryo and is then inserted into the womens uterus This is a very complex procedure because care must be taken to make sure the egg and sperm survive in the outside environment The success rates for IVF range from 15-20 and the cost for each attempt is 10000 Another technique which is also widely used is surrogate motherhood This technique is used when the female of the married couple is either unable to produce eggs or unable to carry a pregnancy The surrogate mother has the sperm of the male in the married couple artificially inseminated or the married couple will go through IVF and the fertilized egg
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