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Works Cited Chernicoff Fox Essentials of Geology Ghaly Basic Geosciences Illustrations For all Levels The Bowen Reaction Series In 1922 Norman Levi Bowen and his colleagues determined the sequence in which silicate minerals crystallize as magma cools Chernicoff 56 This work made it possible to summarize a complex set of geochemical relationships called Bowens Reaction Series This series shows that silicate mineralscancrystallize from mafic magmas in two ways in a discontinuous series or a continuous series Iron and magnesium rich silicatesferromagnesian crystallize one after another in a specific sequence Chernicoff 56 Because each successive type of this mineral crystallized differs from the one that came before it this progression is called the discontinuous series In the discontinuous series the first ferromagnesian mineral to crystallize is olivine Olivine has a low silica content and a relatively simple structure of independent tetrahedra Chernicoff 56 At the same temperatures as the olivine and the pyroxenes crystallize so does the calcium feldspar As these crystals continue to interact with the remaining liquid sodiumions from the liquid magma replace the calcium ions in the calcium feldspar Chernicoff 57 Eventually the crystals are completely converted to sodium feldspar Because one type of ion is being replaced by a similar ion the internal structure does not change This progression is called the continuous series Chernicoff 57 After both minerals from the discontinuous series and the continuous series have crystallized completely from an initially mafic magma less than 10 of the original liquid remains Chernicoff 57 Depending on its composition this liquid may now contain higher concentrations of silica potassium and aluminum In such a case potassium feldspar potassium-aluminum mica and quartz are the last minerals to crystallize Cherincoff 57 Higher Temperature Basic Magma Olivine
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