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Controversies Between Church and StateDuring the Middle Ages church and state leaders had many battles Some who were involved were Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich IV and Pope Gregory VIII King II and Archbishop Thomas Becket King Philip IV and Pope Boniface VIII Their situations were all related by the fact that they were all controversies between an emperor or king and the Catholic church The Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich Henry IV and Pope Gregory VIIIs struggle was centered on by investiture Henry invested many bishops at his own will even though Gregory had banned investiture by laity Henry felt his investiture of bishops was necessary to the control of his kingdom so he kept on doing it Gregory responded to this by excommunicating Henry Henry later apologized and received the Popes forgiveness Out of humiliation he chased Gregory out of Rome and elected a new pope King Henry II made his close and dear friend Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury in hopes that since he and his friend were so close Becket would give some power over the Church to Henry Instead Becket refused to do Henrys bidding and became a fierce champion of the independence and rights of the church In 1170 Becket was killed during a church mass by four of Henrys knights Henry surrendered to the Pope who threatened him with excommunication Thomas Becket was later named a saint and is a symbol of the struggle between church and statePope Boniface VIII believed that the Pope whomever he may be was always in higher power than the reigning king or emperor Boniface issued a bull saying kings could not tax clergy yet King Philip IV kept on taxing the Church Boniface issued yet another bull titled the Unam Sanctum which stated that there were two powers in the universe earthly kings emperors etc and spiritual God and that spiritual is always higher than earthly Since he represented God
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