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Encoding and retrieval are essential to the workings of the memory and the fact that there are two main kinds of memory short term and long term is significant Short term memory holds information for fairly short intervals whereas long term memory stores information for a far longer amount of time The relationship between both as some Psychologists claim is envisaged by stage theory When information is encoded it is stored in short term memory It must remain there for a long time in order for it to be finally stored in long term memory The means for retaining it in short term memory is known as rehearsal By recalling information repeatedly the chances of this information being transferred from short term to long term memory increases each time Information stored in short term memory has a very limited time span and there are two main reasons for this Information can be displaced ie old information somehow keeps being dumped whenever more recent information enters Information can decay ie where the memory trace becomes eroded over time by an unknown physiological process so its detail becomes progressively extinct Often each factor plays an equal role in memory loss One way to encode information befre it is erased in short term memory is by a process of organisation This means the individual groups together or pairs off the necessary information given in order to remember it store it in short term memory rather than learning information off at random This process of organisation makes it much easier to remember information In order for learning to occur the information in short-term memory must be manipulated or transformed The person will have to rehearse it convert it link it or perform some other action with the information or else it will fade Cognitive Psychologists present a framework for analyzing this process based upon teacher characteristics knowledge and presentation learner
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