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Why people behave justly Is it because of the fear of punishment or the fear of divine reprisal Or because behaving just is good to do so Or is it because the weaker one is scared into submission in the name of law due to the fear of the stronger Is justice good in itself not considering its rewards and punishments How can justice be defined Plato sets out to answer these questions in his dialogue Republic He wants to define justice in such a way as to show that justice is valuable in and of itself His objective was to show that justice is worthwhile Just action is good in itself and one must not engage in just activity only to gain immediate advantage from it He succeeds to meet these two challenges by defining justice that appeals to human psychology Before he can prove that justice is a virtue in itself Plato must first state what justice is and instead of defining justice as a set of behavioral norms Plato identifies justice as structural one According to him political justice resides in the structure of the society and individual justice resides in the structure of the soul The just structure of the society is summed up by the principle of specialization which means that each member of society must play the role for which his nature best suits him He considers an ideal social order to be consists of three main classes of people guardians rulers defenders soldiers and warriors and artisans farmers craftsmen etc A society is just when relations between these three classes are balanced Each one of the three classes must perform its appropriate well defined function in the society and should not interfere in the roles of the other two classes Guardians must rule defenders must be sincere to rulers by carrying out their orders and artisans must perform their duties according to skills and profession they posses
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