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we have organic disease versus the symptom complex of neurosis with no physical determinants but rather we must look forthe underlying conflicts ascertained by talking through psychotherapy How do you apply this to a collectivity like a nation Is there a national character in which invariably a nation follows a pre-selected pattern of inherited behavior For instance arethe Germans warlike the Russians passive and the Americans beneficent 2 Or must we look to an interdisciplinary approach to assess group dynamics Does Freud help While there is a definitionof normality for the individual there is no such standard in judging nation-states or even various cultures Ethnology is the studyof different cultures and how their moralities develop He talks about the structural foundation of the mind--theory of the id ego and superego Then too there is the topography ofthe mind in the conscious pre-conscious and perception and the unconscious Can we find its physical coordinates No Wemust infer its existence from uniformity of human behavior If a symptom can be to cured by talking through then its causemight be attributable to unacceptable thoughts--like killing the father by the son to win over his mother The famous Oedipuscomplex He claims it is a phylogenetic inheritance of the human race It is the incest taboo You simply do not sleep withblood relatives because in-breeding produces undesirable recessive traits and the lack of security The actual crime producesremorse the thought of it guilt and consequent anxiety The books major themes are the sense of guilt an internalized conscience of the society and the familys taboos placed onerotic instincts and the death instinct aggression Guilt arises from aggression and the shame of it We feel a sense of guiltfrom forbidden deeds committed and also the intent to do these deeds We internalize the familys and civilizations violence inrepressing our instinctual nature and either direct it outwardly or inwardly Cases of sadism and masochism exhibit thisphenomenon It often has an erotic component
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