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1To what extent did the Enlightenment express optimistic ideas in eighteenth century Europe Illustrate your answer with references to specific individuals and their works 1998 5 During the eighteenth century Europeans experienced the dawning of an age of knowledge reasoning and of great scientific achievements Their views toward new discoveries and advancements were optimistic People began to turn to science for a better understanding of their world and their society Literature and essays were commonly used to express their hopes for further developments in society politics economy and education I Individuals AJohn Locke 1Essay Concerning Human Understanding 1690 aRegarded the human mind of a person as a blank slate bDid not believe in intuition or theories of innate conceptions 2Two Treatise of Government aAttacked the theory of divine right of Kings bArgued that sovereignty did not reside in the state but with the people 3Some thoughts concerning education aRecommended practical learning to prepare people bLockes curriculum included conversational learning of foreign languages especially French mathematics history physical education and games BRene Descartes 1Descartess philosophy sometimes called Cartesianism aElaborate explanations of a number of physical phenomena 2Physiology aPart of human blood was a subtle fluid that he called animal spirits 3Study of Optics aFundamental law of reflection that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection bPaved the way for the udulatory theory of light 4Mathematics aSystematization of analytic geometry bFirst mathematician to attempt to classify curves according to the types of equations that produce them cMade contributions to the theory of equations dFirst to use the last letters of the alphabet to designate unknown quantities and the first letters to designate known ones eInvented the method of indices as in x2 to express the powers of numbers f Formulated the rule for finding the number of positive and negative roots for any algebraic equation C Sir Isaac Newton
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