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Italian Architecture in the Middle Ages In the Fifteenth century the Italian historian Flavio Biondo regarded the sack of Rome by the Visogoths as the end of ancient civilization He also believed that this marked the beginning of the Middle Ages Erickson 72 Within the thousand years of the Middle Ages historians have recognized subperiods These subperiods include the Early Middle Ages 900 to 1000 the High Middle Ages 1000 to 1300 and the Later Middle Ages the 14th and 15th centuries Grolier 1 The purpose of this paper is to explain Middle Age Italian architecture through its history and specific examples Italian art history begins in Rome during the first through the fourth centuries The birth of Christian religious architecture based on Roman prototypes was developed The transfer of the Roman imperial capital to Byzantium in the 4th century meant that Italy would become a Byzantine cultural province Hoyt 1718 20 Resident in Sicily were the Arabs who Paladino 2 introduced styles of oriental magnificence such as Palarmos Palantine Chapel According to John White in Art and Architecture In Italy 1250-1400 impressive central plans lavish materials sumptuous color mysterious lighting and stylized representation describe such works as Ravennas San Vitale and St Marks Basilica The Italian Romanesque was concentrated in Lombardy Tuscany and Southern Italy The Lombard architecture was known for large vaulted churches made of elaborate exterior brick In Tuscany Pisan architecture superimposed tiers of marble cascades as in the Pisa Cathedral The Cefalu and Monerale Cathedrals in Sicily are representations of southern Italy architectures French architects employed by the Normans who had conquered Sicily from the Arabs are attributed to the northern Italy church facades decorated with sculptures of stone This is evident in such works as the Modena Cathedral and the bronze relief patterns in San Zeno Verona White 100 101 114123 Originating in the mid 12th century in France the Gothic style was introduced
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