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Word Count: 2,244
TCP and IP were developed by a Department of Defense DOD research project toconnect a number different networks designed by different vendors into a network of networksthe Internet It was initially successful because it delivered a few basic services that everyoneneeds file transfer electronic mail remote logon across a very large number of client and serversystems Several computers in a small department can use TCPIP along with other protocols ona single LAN The IP component provides routing from the department to the enterprise networkthen to regional networks and finally to the global Internet On the battlefield a communicationsnetwork will sustain damage so the DOD designed TCPIP to be robust and automaticallyrecover from any node or phone line failure This design allows the construction of very largenetworks with less central management However because of the automatic recovery networkproblems can go undiagnosed and uncorrected for long periods of time As with all other communications protocol TCPIP is composed of layers IP - is responsible for moving packet of data from node to node IP forwards each packet based on a four byte destination address the IP number The Internet authorities assign ranges of numbers to different organizations The organizations assign groups of their numbers to departments IP operates on gateway machines that move data from department to organization to region and then around the world TCP - is responsible for verifying the correct delivery of data from client to server Data can be lost in the intermediate network TCP adds support to detect errors or lost data and to trigger retransmission until the data is correctly and completely received Sockets - is a name given to the package of subroutines that provide access to TCPIP onThe Army puts out a bid on a computer and DEC wins the bid The Air Force puts out a bid
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