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The Revolution of 1905 On January 22 1905 thousands of people led by Georgy Gapon a revolutionary priest marched to the Tsars Palace carrying icons and chanting God save the tsar Their aim was to present a petition to Nicholas asking for the summoning assembly and an eight-hour working day Nicholas was not in residence and the marchers were fired on by imperial troops Hundreds were killed and wounded and the event has become known in Russian history as Bloody Sunday The massacre caused a series of events that became known as the Revolution of 1905 Strikes and riots protesting against the killings began throughout the industrialized sections of Russia The rush of events combined with continued disaster in the war against Japan influenced the government to make concessions The Tsar promised a parliament called the State Duma and issued various decrees This was considered totally unacceptable and the call for reform intensified There were strikes peasant revolts and assassinations Soldiers and sailors mutinied most famously on the Battleship Potemkin of the Black Sea fleet To this was added the complete defeat of Russia in the Russian Japanese War The October Manifesto split the revolutionaries Many of the Mensheviks favoured participation in the Duma The Bolsheviks opposed it and the St Petersburg Soviet continued resistance until their arrest in December brought about a violent workers rebellion in Moscow which was brutally quelled by army troops Order was restored by equally drastic methods in the countryside By early 1906 the government was again in controlhowever it gave Nicholas clear warning of impending revolution without fundamental changes in the regime D2World War I The outbreak of World War I in 1914 put a temporary halt to the revolutionary activities of the radicals The war was directly precipitated when Russia refused to stand aside while Austria invaded Serbia after the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria at Sarajevo on June 28 1914 The fourth
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