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Nationalism is a popular sentiment that places the existence and well-being of the nation highest in the scale of political loyalties In political terms it signifies a persons willingness to work for the nation against foreign domination whether political economic or cultural Nationalism also implies a groups consciousness of shared history language race and values Its significance lies in its role in supplying the ties that make the nation-state a cohesive viable entityNationalism belongs to the modern world Before the 18th century people gave their loyalty to their communities tribes feudal lords princes religious groups or other universal principles Borders could thus be changed without popular outcry against the violation of national integrity For example when Louis XIV of France seized the free imperial city of Strasbourg on the Rhine in 1681 the people of the city accepted him as their king By the 19th century however nationalist sentiments were strong When Germany annexed Strasbourg and the rest of Alsace-Lorraine in 1871 its citizens felt bitter resentment at the dismemberment of the French nationAmong the first modern manifestations of nationalism was the French Revolution 1789 Starting as a crusade for liberty equality and fraternity the French Revolution turned into a war of the French people against foreign aggressors When Napoleon took power and began to create a French empire other nations fought back From Spain to Russia peoples rose in defense of their nations against French imperialism The German philosopher Johann Gottlieb FICHTE delivered his Addresses to the German Nation 1807-08 specifically against NapoleonAfter Napoleons fall nationalism continued to develop At the Congress of Vienna 1814-15 Belgium was given to the Netherlands but 15 years later the Belgians revolted and gained their national independence In Italy the drive toward nationhood led by Giuseppe MAZZINI Camillo CAVOUR and Giuseppe GARIBALDI occupied much of the century Germany a mere grouping of states in 1815 was unified under the direction of Prussian chancellor Otto von BISMARCK in 1871
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