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Word Count: 660
In early societies women bore children cared for the home and helped maintain the familys economic production Men hunted made war and in settled societies assumed primary responsibility for field crop production Male dominance however was important from the time of the earliest written historical records probably as a result of mens discovery of their role in development of hunting and warfare as status activities The belief that women were naturally weaker and inferior to men was also certified by god- centered religions In the bible god placed Eve under Adams authority and St Paul urged women to be obedient of their husbands In Hinduism the reward of a proper woman is rebirth as a man Therefore in most traditional societies women generally were at a disadvantage Their education was limited to learning domestic skills and they had no access to positions of power Some exceptions to womens dependence on men did exist In ancient Babylonia and Egypt women had property rights and in medieval Europe the could join craft guilds Men of the lower classes also lacked rights but they could console themselves by feeling superior to women The Enlightenment with its egalitarian political importance and the Industrial Revolution which caused economic and social changes provided a favorable climate for the rise of feminism along with other reform movements in the late 18th and the 19th centuries Of deeper significance for women was the Industrial Revolution The transformation of handicrafts which women had always carried on at home without pay into machine-powered mass production meant that lower-class women could become wage earners in factories This was the beginning of their independence although factory conditions were hazardous and their pay lower than mens was legally controlled by their husbands At the same time middle and upper-class women were expected to stay at home as idle decorative symbols of their husbands economic success Such conditions encouraged
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