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The roots of the Russian Revolution of 1917 were deep Russia had suffered under an extremely oppressive form of government for centuries under the rule of the czars During the 19th century the nation was filled with movements for political liberalization In the long run there were several revolutions not one The first rebellion known as the Decembrist uprising took place in December 1825 Members of the upper classes including many former soldiers staged a revolt after the death of Alexander I The revolt failed but it provided an inspiration to succeeding generations of dissidents The next revolution took place in 1905 after the Russo-Japanese War which Russia lost It appeared briefly that public discontent would force Czar Nicholas II to establish a constitutional monarchy Such a change would not have satisfied either the czar or his opponents however Radical revolutionaries continued to fight for a democratic republic and the czar wanted to retain his control of the peasants The next two revolutions were successful They occurred during World War I when Russian military forces were hard pressed by the Germans The March Revolution of 1917 led to the abdication of Nicholas and the installation of a provisional government The leader of this government was Alexander Kerensky who was eventually forced from power He later immigrated to the United States The last revolution took place in November of the same year Because the date was in October on the old Russian calendar it is usually called the October or Octobrist Revolution It brought to power the Bolshevik wing of the Communist party led by Lenin The Bolsheviks established the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics under the dictatorship of the Communist party In the end Lenin and his followers established a regime that was more rigidly tyrannical than that of any czar Czar Nicholas had taken command of armies in the field in the fall of 1915 This
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