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Word Count: 387
Byzantine Art Mosaic Byzantine achievements in mosaic decoration brought this art to an unprecedented level of monumentality and expressive power Mosaics were applied to the domes half-domes and other available surfaces of Byzantine churches in an established hierarchical order The center of the dome was reserved for the representation of the Pantocrator or Christ as the ruler of the universe whereas other sacred personages occupied lower spaces in descending order of importance The entire church thus served as a tangible evocation of the celestial order this conception was further enhanced by the stylized poses and gestures of the figures their hieratic gaze and the luminous shimmer of the gold backgrounds Because of the destruction of many major monuments in Constantinople proper large ensembles of mosaic decoration have survived chiefly outside the capital in such places as Salonica Nicaea and Daphni in Greece and Ravenna in Italy Painting An important aspect of Byzantine artistic activity was the painting of devotional panels since the cult of icons played a leading part in both religious and secular life Icon painting usually employed the encaustic technique Little scope was afforded individuality the effectiveness of the religious image as a vehicle of divine presence was held to depend on its fidelity to an established prototype A large group of devotional images has been preserved in the monastery of St Catherine on Mt Sinai The development of Byzantine painting may also be seen in manuscript illumination Among notable examples of Byzantine illumination are a lavishly illustrated 9th-century copy of the Homilies of Gregory Nazianzus and two works believed to date from a 10th-century revival of classicism the Joshua Rotulus or Roll and the Paris Psalter Other Arts Enamel ivory and metalwork objects of Byzantine workmanship were highly prized throughout the Middle Ages many such works are found in the treasuries of Western churches Most of these objects were reliquaries or devotional panels although an important series of
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