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Word Count: 387
Sartres most popular play is undoubtedly the one-act drama No Exit which is a discussion of such familiar negative existentialist themes as bad faith self-destruction and the impossibility of interpersonal relationships It is in this play that Sartres famous line Hell is other people occurs Although many nineteenth century philosophers developed the concepts of existentialism it was Sartre who popularized it His one act play Huis Clos Closed Doors or No Exit first produced in Paris in May 1944 is the clearest example and metaphor for this philosophy There are only four characters the Valet Garcin Estelle and Inez and the entire play takes place in a drawing room Second Empire style with a massive bronze ornament on the mantelpiece Sartre begins his philosophy with the assertion that existence precedes essence It contains three basic ideas 1 Ltre-en-soi Being-in-itself 2 Ltre pour-soi Being-for-itself 3 Ltre-pour-autrui Being-for-others Existence is the process wherein a thing becomes what it will be It is through the process of existence that a person defines himself Humans are condemned to be free that is without the existence of an absolute god or a pre-existing universal definition they are free to define themselves through their actions and choices Such freedom which is at the heart of human existence carries with it the burden of personal responsibility because of this Sartre refers to it as a condemnation Freedom is not freedom from but is freedom for Existence is a process of becoming that projects into the future Ones existence is always a projection of possibilities to choose from Thus freedom is always a projection of future possibilities for possible action Nothingness lies at the heart of being and creates a yearning for fulfillment nothingness is the origin of freedom and the origin of human existence The lack of a pre-determined essence is the nothingness at the heart of being that drives the human to seek to define himself such drive for the fulfillment
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