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Before 1871 there was no Italy or GermanyIndeed this were only geographical entities of various small independent states but by 1871 both the kingdom of Italy and the empire of Germany were united Even though both countries used popular trends to that time both liberalism and nationalism the process unifying these two countries was very different Italys problems started with the fact that it didnt have one main ruler but two people and a concept resulting in a different approach to the unification Gulseppe Mazzini had a radical program focusing on a centralized democratic republic based on universal suffrage and the will of the people Vincenzo Gioberti who was a catholic priest called for a federation of existing states under the presidency of the pope Then there were the people who favored leadership toward the autocratic kingdom of Sardenia Sardenias rule was much more popular to the middle class than the other two because Sardenia appeared to be a liberal progressive state displaying national unification That is what the people were striving for They thought Mazzinis ideas too radical- and they were trying to get away from religion running the nation as it had done in the past They wanted a distinct separation between church and state Cavour was the man who made the change but he sought unity only for northern Italy to become a greatly expanded kingdom of Sardenia In the 1850s Cavour worked to consolidate Sardenia as a liberal state capable of leading northern Italy Cavour saw Austria as a threat in unifying Italy and this is one point where both Cavour and Bismarck were on common ground Therefore they strategically persuaded European powers to fight against AustriaItaly provoked Austria into war Cavour then used Garibaldis popular appeal to his benefit When Garibaldi and Emmanuel rode through Naples to cheering crowds they symbolically sealed the union of north and south of monarch and people Italy was now unified Despite the fact
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