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Pakistan The Two Nations Theory Events in the late 1920s and 1930s led Muslims to begin to think that their destiny might be in a separate state a concept that developed into the demand for partition Motilal Nehru convened an all-party conference in 1929 to suggest changes that would lead to independence when the British took up the report of the Simon Commission The majority of the delegates demanded the end of the system of separate electorates Jinnah in turn put forward fifteen points that would satisfy Muslim interests--in particular the retention of separate electorates or the creation of safeguards to prevent a Hindu-controlled legislature Jinnahs proposals were rejected and from then on cooperation between Hindus and Muslims in the independence movement was rare In his presidential address to the Muslim League session at Allahabad in 1930 the leading modern Muslim philosopher in South Asia Sir Muhammad Iqbal 1876-1938 described India as Asia in miniature in which a unitary form of government was inconceivable and religious community rather than territory was the basis for identification To him communalism in its highest sense was the key to the formation of a harmonious whole in India Therefore he demanded the establishment of a confederated India to include a Muslim state consisting of Punjab North-West Frontier Province Sindh and Balochistan In subsequent speeches and writings Iqbal reiterated the claims of Muslims to be considered a nation based on unity of language race history religion and identity of economic interests Iqbal gave no name to his projected state That was done by a group of students at Cambridge in Britain who issued a pamphlet in 1933 entitled Now or Never They opposed the idea of federation denied that India was a single country and demanded partition into regions the northwest receiving national status as a Pakistan They explained the term as follows Pakistan is composed of letters taken from
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