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Lime Disease Lyme disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi which is a tick-borne spirochete The dangers of this disease became more publicised in 1977 where a geographic grouping of children in Lyme Conneticut were thought to have juvenile rheumatoid arthritis1 Soon after it was discovered that lyme disease was an illness that mainly affects the skin nervous system heart and joints The borrelia species is part of the eubacterial phylum of spirochetes Containted within a protoplasmic cylinder is a cell membrane followed by wavy flagella and then an outer membrane The genes encoded within the outer membrane are located on plasmids which allows the organism to make antigenic changes in these proteins When a borrelia cell attaches to its host the whole outer membrane moves to one end of the cylinder which is called capping to patching1 B burgdorferi do not live in water soil or plants Borrelia grow slowly compared to most bacteria They elongate for 12 to 24 hours before dividing into two cells B burgdorferi is approximately 20 to um long and 02 to 025 um wide with 7 to 11 flagella More than 30 proteins are contained within B burgdorferi1 This bacteria uses white-footed mice mosquitoes and deer as their hosts This disease does not discriminate between sex and age male and female as well as old and young are affected It is widely distributed around the world in the temperate zones3 A person is infected when a black-legged tick imbeds itself into them while out in the open in wodded and forested areas This usually occurs between the months of May and July Tick abundance is associated with humidity temperature landscape slope forested areas with sandy soils and the extremity of residential development Generally lyme disease occurs in stages which are not always clear-cut they may overlap The first stage involves the injection of B burgdorferi by the tick Shortly thereafter 3 days to 4 months it
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