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Word Count: 657
Osmosis Plasmolysis and Turgor Each cell has constantly to cope with osmotic phenomenons Cells without walls that live in aqueous solutions are usually hypertonic They are subject to a continuous influx of water that results in a pressure on the inside of the membrane Some ciliates like Paramecium and flagellates Euglena have a special organ a pulsating vacuole that pumps the water out again and has to be supplied with energy Red blood cells erythrocytes occur normally in isotonic surroundings blood plasma The cells burst if the blood is diluted with water since their membranes cannot face the osmotic pressure within the cells Blood is therefore always diluted with an isotonic 09 NaCl-solution The situation in plant cells is different in that they are enclosed by a rigid cell wall In a hypotonic solution can they only take up water until the inner and the outer water potential are equal The solution at the inside of the plant cell is subject to an additional hydrostatic pressure Plant cells store ions sugars organic and amino acids and other substances in considerable concentrations in their vacuoles The solutes cause an influx of water In this way can plant cells build up a large positive internal pressure the turgor pressure It has a decisive influence on the maintenance of the rigidity and stability of plant tissues Each cell exerts a pressure on its neighbouring cells The pressures add up to a large tissue tension Plants that loose water wilt because their turgor pressure decreases The stability of the tissues cannot be maintained As long as the cells are still living can the turgor pressure be fixed again a phenomenon common in everyday life wilted plants recover after watering Osmosis and turgor pressure have been extensively examined at the end of the last century by W PFEFFER He constructed a model an osmometer the PFEFFER cell that allows the quantitative determination of the osmotic pressure He expressed
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