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Today in society concepts are hardly ever in their original form It is extremely rare for anything to be in prototype form Most ideas are based upon prior thoughts and beliefs Even documents that our society is based upon have been derived from the philosophies of former innovative thinkers Through their own new and radical philosophies philosophers such as Beccaria and Voltaire from the Enlightenment period influenced societys and governments future ideas and principles By writing numerous books and essays these philosophers were able to become the foundation of many important freedoms and principles Cesare Beccaria is most well known for his essay On Crimes and Punishments Within this essay Beccaria explained his philosophy of the need to punish This philosophy impacted our society specifically in The Bill of Rights Beccaria has also been recognized for his views upon the death penalty This influenced the movement to abolish the death penalty In On Crimes and Punishments Beccaria writes Thus it was necessity that forced men to give up apart of their liberty It is certain then that every individual would choose to put into the public stock the smallest portion possible as much only as was sufficient to engage others to defend it The aggregate of these the smallest portions possible forms the right of punishing all that extends beyond this is abuse not justice Observe that by justice I understand nothing more than that bond which is necessary to keep the interest of individuals united without which men would return to their original state of barbarity All punishments which exceed the necessity of preserving this bond are in their nature unjust 8 Here Beccaria is basically saying that punishment should be used to the smallest extent possible Punishment is necessary to keep man in line letting him be aware that there are consequences for doing something against the law However punishing beyond what is necessary is cruel and unjust and there is no purpose
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