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1 What did Paul Valery mean in saying that the mind of Europe doubted itself profoundly Before 1914 people in Europe believed in progress peace prosperity reason and rights of individuals During that time people began to believe in the Enlightenment industrial developments were just starting and scientific advances began to take place People then really believed in progression and further developments Unfortunately World War I broke out Nevertheless the optimistic people of Europe still did not doubt the outcome and were so convinced that it was not going to have any long term effects They looked toward happier times and hoped life will go back to where it was before But little did they know as a result of the war total war broke out and crushed all the hopes and accomplishments that the people had established This shocking reality was unbearable and uncomprehending to the peoples hopes and dreams And as this lasted over the years the age of anxiety was created People didnt know or what to expect anymore They did not know what was going to happen after the war Theyre so devastated by the war that many who were still alive lost faith and all hopes Many intellectuals began to doubt the Enlightenment and even the future of Western civilization This state of uncertainty and unpredictability brought out many modern philosophers of that time One of them was a French poet and critic Paul Valery He stated that Europe was looking at its future with dark foreboding In his writings he said that The storm has died away and still we are restless uneasy as if the storm were about to break The storm in this case was the war People were so terrified by it that they were still in shock and
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