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Human Travel Systems We would like to take you on a marvelous trip through the skeletal system In this trip you will view such sites as the working joints and bones and also the composition of the bone We cant give away the whole trip quite yet so sit back and enjoy the ride First we enter the body by being miniaturized and we will enter as given a shot into the tibia Now that we are inside the bone we will look at how the bone is built and made up of Bones are very strong They are compared to concrete or cast iron Some bones can withstand pressure of 220kg pscm About 45 of the material of a bone are nonliving The minerals are usually calcium and phosphorus they give the bone strength Living cells blood make up 30 and 25 water Bones have three layers The first is a thin covering of cells that form a tough protective membrane are the bone A membrane called the periosteum surrounds individual bones The second layer is a hard white rocklike mineral The last layer of the bone is the marrow It is lighter than the other materials Although all bones dont have the same three layer setup Short bones and many flat bones are mostly sponge surrounded by a thin layer of hard bone As children grow up they go through a t ransformation with their bones called ossification When this processes happens the cartilage turns to bone Next we hike up the steep yet very hard bone As we go up the bone to get to the femur we must go over a hinge joint A hinge joint is one of four of the major joints The hinge joint allows only a back and forth movement it is like a door hinge Some examples of hinge joints are elbows and knees Another type of joint is the ball
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