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Traditional sociological analyses tie secondary socialization sources to behavior usually using linkage through stress Situations personal traits etc lead to stress and drugs relieve them According to Oetting and Donnermeyer these secondary socialization sources operate only via their effects on primary socializations sources Unless a personality trait a community characteristic stress or any other factor influences bonding with the primary socialization sources or alters the communication of norms through those sources the theory proposes that there will be little or no effect on deviant behaviors Oetting and Donnermeyer 1998 Thus far there is to be a series of three articles only one of which has been published the major analysis has been of adolescents Three primary sources of socialization are proposed family school and peer groups While any of these groups are capable of transmitting both prosocial and deviant norms family and school are seen as being primarily prosocial and peer groups carrying the main risk of trasmitting deviant norms Family socialization contains two components which impact an adolescents risk for deviance the strength of the family bond and the use of those bonds to transmit prosocial norms Dysfunctional families may either alienate their children andor provide deviant normative information to them The family bond of concern in these cases is not just a matter of support of love It is more specifically limited to the level to which an individual is willing to accept and adopt values and norms from the family and thus to behave accordingly Society currently assigns schools the responsibility of transmitting certain cultural and behavioral norms In the same way that there are dysfunctional families there are also dysfunctional schools which have parallel weaknesses The typical image of a dysfunctional school of the resignation to chaos and deviance is only one type Even in the best schools there will be alienated peer groups Poor grades disciplinary problems etc tend to erode the bond between an adolescent and school and thus
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