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Carriage of Goods by Sea Transportation is a key element in todays business world Along with the sale of goods one must ship them some how to the customer In cases of international shipment there are many different rules and regulations that the shipper must follow in order to legally transport their goods When a company ships their goods they generally ship by common carriers in other words a carrier that transports more than parties goods If however a party contracts to employ an entire vessel then that is know as charterparty The following paper focuses on the Common Carriage and aspects such as bill of lading the carriers duties under a bill of lading the carriers immunities liability limit time limitations and third-party rights A general ship or a common carrier is a vessel that the owner or operator willing carries goods for more than one person There are three different types of common carriers First is a conference line which is an association of seagoing carriers who have joined together to offer common freight rates Those that chose to ship all or a large share of their cargo through this process receives a discounted rate Second is an independent line which is when the vessel has their own rate schedules Generally independent lines have a lower rate than that of the conference discounted price Finally the third aspect of common carrier is tramp vessels which are similar to independent lines by the fact that they have their own rate schedule but they differ from both in that they dont operate on established schedules The next topic is the bill of lading which is an instrument issued by an ocean carrier to a shipper that serves as a receipt of the contract of carriage and as a document of title for the goods The treaty that governs the bill of lading is the International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules
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