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The relationship between teacher expectations and academic performance has been a topic of interest for the last 50 years Teachers judgements often play a role in facilitating or inhibiting students academic performance Sdkamp Kaiser Mller 2012 For example females are generally perceived to be competent in reading language and arts and boys are perceived to be competent in maths science and physical education Berekashvili 2012 Subsequently these performance expectations can result in the differential treatment and instructional practices in the classroom Sdkamp Kaiser Mller 2012 This is consistent with Sadker 1999 who found that although girls and boys are in the same classroom and subjected to the same teaching environment their education experience may be very different These experiences in the classroom may have a significant influence on students desires and motivations to learn Blote 1995 This paper will review the literature on the impact of teacher expectations on student academic performance Firstly it will explore the long-term impact of teacher expectations on student academic performance and the self-fulfilling prophecy Secondly it will consider the bases of teacher expectations and the process by which they are formed Thirdly the two types of expectations will be introduced Fourthly differential teacher treatment of students and students perceptions of differential teacher treatment will be considered Along with the student characteristics that make students the targets of low expectations Finally students self-perceptions of ability and teacher expectations of student ability in specific domains will be compared The Long Term Impact of Teacher Expectations Brophy 1983 claims that teacher expectations make five percent of an overall negative or positive difference to student achievement This difference may seem small however the accumulation of this sort of effect over a number of years could have a significant impact on student achievement This research is supported by findings of two longitudinal studies by De Boer Bosker and Magaretha 2010 and Alvidrez and Weinstein 1999 De Boer et al conducted a
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