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The subject of gender differences appears to have engaged peoples curiosity for as long as people have been writing down their thoughts from as far back as the writing of the creation of Adam and Eve to its current popular expression in books such as Men Are from Mars Women Are from Venus John Gray 1992 In it the author expresses the premise that our expectations for the opposite sex to be more similar to our own lead to anger and frustration as does the fact that we in effect speak different languages This issue is even addressed in an article for children Monroe 1995 which describes differences in brain structure hormones and socialization all of which contribute to perceived differences in thought processes and behavior Of particular interest is the question of how the genders are perceived to express themselves differently in the form of communications if at all and whether or not actual differences exist according to scientific research This paper has as its goal the examination of research literature related to these differences and the specific applied and basic research of relevance The validity of such research was addressed by Canary and Hause 1993 In their study the authors assert that 50 years of research on sex differences in communications brought about no conclusive findings for such differences although such differences might reasonably be expected The authors meta-analyses of findings from a broad array of studies provided evidence for an expectation of small differences due to sex approximately 1 of variance with those effects being moderated by socio-cultural variables However they also assert that true elucidation of those difference are overlooked due to methodological errors and sex role stereotyping Such stereotyping perpetuates myths about sex differences and does not serve to accurately predict behavior The researchers recommend avoiding the use of gender as an independent variable which affects communication in favor of seeing it as a dependent variable where communication
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