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HANS GEIGER Hans Geiger whose full name was Johannes Wilhelm Geiger was born in Neustadt-an-der-Haardt Germany on September 30 1882 He died in Berlin on September 24 1945 He was the inventor of the Geiger counter Geiger got his the PhD at the University of Erlanger in 1906 Geiger worked in Manchester England with Ernest Rutherford from 1906 to 1912 In 1922 they came up with the first version of the Geiger counter that was made to count the number of alpha particles and other ionizing radiation He used his counter in early experiments that led to the identification of the alpha particles as the nucleus of the helium atom They also demonstrated that alpha-particles had two units of charge It was also observed that occasionally alpha-particles are deflected through large angles when thy strike a thin leaf of gold or silver This scattering experiment was essential in leading to Rutherfords nuclear theory of the atom made in 1912 that in any atom the nucleus occupies a very small volume at the center Many theories of radioactivity were also found and demonstrated by Geiger In 1910 with Rutherford they showed that two alpha-particles are emitted in the radioactive decay of uranium and in 1912 with J M Nuttal they proved that this is caused by two uranium isotopes The Geiger-Nuttal rule of 1911 states that the relationship is linear between the logarithm of the range of alpha-particles and the radioactive time constant which is involved in the rate of decay of emitting nucleus Geiger returned to Germany in 1914 During World War I he served as an artillery officer in German Army With Walther Bothe Geiger devised the technique of coincidence counting and used it in 1924 to clarify the detail of the Compton effect In the next year at the University of Kiel where he was offered a professional appointments he and
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