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Word Count: 250
Ionisation energy is the energy to remove the first electron from an atom in the gaseous state - Increases across a period as electron shells go from near empty to full - Decreases down a group as the outer electrons become further removed from the positive nucleus - The second ionisation energy is always greater than the first since the electron is now being removed from a positive ion Electronegativity is the relative power to attract electrons - Increases across a period as the number of protons increases so does the positive charge of the nucleus thus a stronger attraction and electrons are being held more tightly - Decrease down a group as the negatively charged electrons repel each other and the invaders The more protons the greater the number of occupied electron shells that shield the nucleus - Fluorine is the most electronegative element and when combined with caesium will react violently Atomic Radius - Decreases across a period because the number of positively charged protons in the nucleus increases pulling the negative electrons in more tightly - Increases down a group as the number of electron shells increase Melting and Boiling Points - Increases to Group IV then rapidly decreases - Groups I and II Metallic bond Moderate to high - Group IV Covalent network solids Very high - Group VII Diatomic covalent Forces between molecules are weak so its low - Group VIII Monatomic gases Only forces between atoms are weak dispersion forces so its very low
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