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Word Count: 332
Early Peruvian cultures evolved from the prehistoric hunter and gathering tribes Around 9000 BC the large hunted animals were extinct so supplementation of their diet was needed and so started the trend toward domestication of plants and wildlife By 5000 BC food gathering techniques were moving toward cultivation and a more settled lifestyle occurred Settled populations in the Andes began to increase because of a steadier and expanding food supply and agriculture developed by trial and error as different crops evolved Cotton gourds lima beans squashes chili peppers peanuts maize and guava were some of the crops that were grown on the coastal plains In the highlands quinoa gourds potatoes and squash was domesticated At altitudes higher than 12000 feet crops could not be sustained Short tough grass was available which the Andean people used for grazing of their cameloid herds The cameloids was a staple used for cotton and meat With the advent of successful agriculture and expanded food supply labor is freed up allowing for specialization of labor This is the catalyst needed to start a complex hierarchy and religious and belief system The Cultures of the Andean people primarily developed around the arid coastline but were not limited to the fertile highlands The Tiahuanaco culture developed in the middle horizon period 600-1000 AD in the highlands of the Andes At an altitude of nearly 13000 feet Tiahuanaco is located on the Titiacaca basin named after the mysterious postglacial lake that is present A great religious cult developed here and was the basis for later Inca religions As farmland in the highlands became scarce war and conflict arose primarily out of economic necessity for survivability We can see the spread of cultures caused by conflict with the Huari people who have been found with the Tiahuanacan religion and pottery The Tiahuanaco and the Huari empires are the first pre Incan empires to develop in the Andes and are an example of successful cultivation
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