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In 1963 an 18-year-old woman was kidnapped and raped in Phoenix Arizona The police investigated the case Miranda vs the State of Arizona and arrested Ernesto Miranda a mentally unstable man Miranda who was 23-years-old at the time of his arrest confessed that he had kidnapped and raped the woman By confessing to the crime Miranda was convicted of kidnapping and rape However when Miranda was arrested he was not advised of his rights as they are declared in the Fifth Amendment The Fifth Amendment states No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury except in cases arising in the land or naval forces or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or public danger nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself nor be deprived of life liberty or property without due process of law nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation Simply stated the Fifth Amendment outlines that anyone including foreigners arrested in the United States has certain rights and privileges that should be spelled out for them at the time of the arrest On appeal Mirandas lawyers called attention to the fact that the police had never told Miranda that he had the right to be represented by a lawyer and that he could remain silent if he wished to do so In addition Miranda was not told that everything that he said could be used against him In conclusion the United States Supreme Court ruled in favor of the defendant by only a 5 to 4 majority The Supreme Court decision detailed the principles governing police interrogation Furthermore it was decided that police officers have to make certain points clear
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