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John Wilson Psychology Essay Development of psychology In the following essay I will explain the development of major schools in terms of distinguishing features and historical context Scientific study is a valid way of coming to an understanding of life and can be very useful in every area of life Science develops theories based on what is observed It examines each theory with rigorous and scrupulous tests to see if it describes reality The scientific method works well in observing and recording physical data and in reaching conclusions which either confirm or nullify a theory During the mid-19th century scholars although at that time probably termed philosophers wanted to study human nature with the aim of applying the scientific method to observe record and treat human behaviour that was deemed as unnatural They believed that if people could be studied in a scientific manner there would be a greater accuracy in understanding present behaviour in predicting future behaviour and most controversially in altering behaviour through scientific intervention There are many areas of psychology each attempting to explain behaviour from slightly different perspectives Social psychology is concerned with the effects of social situations on human behaviour Personality theorists study individual behaviour Comparative psychologists study animal behaviours across the range of species Physiological psychologists are concerned with the biological basis of behaviour Cognitive psychologists investigate memory thought problem solving and the psychological aspects of learning Analysis of behaviour studies the conditions under which a behaviour can be learned and the situations that cause that behaviour to occur Learning is an area of psychology exploring how new behaviours are learned and maintained Clinical psychologists study ways to help individuals and groups of individuals change their behaviour Behaviourism This school of psychology arose partly as a reaction against psychoanalysis and introspective methodology Its founder JB Watson claimed that psychology should be studied like any other science with regards
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