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Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Divisions The autonomic nervous system is made up of two divisions There are many differences between these divisions First of all there are anatomical and physiological differences The parasympathetic division of the autonomic system origin is in the craniosacral outflow the brain stem nuclei of cranial nerves III VII IX and X and spinal cord segments S2-S4 The sympathetic division on the other hand is much more complex than the parasympathetic and is originated in the thoracolumbar outflow Also in the lateral horn of gray matter of the spinal cord segments of thoracic 1 to lumbar 2 Another important physiological difference is the location of ganglia in each division Ganglia of the parasympathetic division are in intramural or close to the visceral organ served The sympathetic ganglia are located with in a few centimeters of the central nervous system They are also alongside the vertebral column and anterior to the vertebral column The relative length of preganglionic and postganglionic fibers in the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions is as such The parasympathetic have long preganglionic and short postganglionic The sympathetic are just the opposite short preganglionic and long postganglionic There is no rami communication in the parasympathetic division while the sympathetic division has gray and white rami communication The functional goal of the parasympathetic division is maintenance functions to conserve and store energy The sympathetic divisions goal is to provide the body to cope with emergencies and intense muscular activity There are many effects of the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions on various organs The constricting of muscles and eye pupils stimulates the iris of the eye by the parasympathetic system The sympathetic effects are the stimualtes of dilator muscles and dilate the eye pupils The parasympathetic effects of the cilliary muscle of the eye are to stimulate muscles which result in the bulging of the lens for accommodation and close vision There are no effects for the sympathetic division The nasal lacrimal
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