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Chapter one of Discovering the Life Span focuses on the field of the lifespan development Lifespan development is the field of study that examines patterns of growth change and stability in behavior that occur throughout the lifespan Lifespan development focuses mainly on human development rather than nonhuman species There are four different types of studies within the topical area physical development cognitive development personality development and social development There are four types of influences that affect development The first influence is history-graded influences A cohort an example of history-graded influence is a group of people born at around the same time and same place The second influence is age-graded influence The third type of influence is sociocultural-graded influences The final influence is non-normative life events An issue that is argued is critical and sensitive periods A critical period is a specific time during development when a particular event has its greatest consequences A sensitive period is when an organism is particularly susceptible to certain inks of stimuli in their environments Another enduring question of development is how much of peoples behavior is due to nature and how much is due to nurture Nature refers to traits abilities and capacities that are inherited from ones parents In contrast nurture refers to the environmental influences that shape behavior All of these questions are challenging There are many different perspectives when studying the lifespan development Each of the perspectives comes up with theories Theories are broad organized explanations and predictions concerning phenomena interest Psychodynamic perspective is the approach that states behavior is motivated by inner forces memories and conflicts that are generally beyond peoples awareness and control Sigmund Freuds ideas profoundly affected psychology and psychiatry According to Freud everyones personality has three aspects the Id which is raw unorganized inborn part of personality that is presented at birth the ego which is the part of the personality that is rational and reasonable and the superego which is
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