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# A Survey of the Development of the Concept of the Pi Number

A little known verse in the bible reads And he made a molten sea ten cubits from the one brim to the other it was round all about and his height was five cubits and a line of thirty cubits did compass it aboutI Kings 7 23 This passage from the bible demonstrates the ancient nature of the irrational number pi Pi in fact is mentioned in a number of verses throughout the bible In II Chronicles 42 in the passage describing the building of the great temple of Solomon which was built around 950BC pi is given as equal to three This value is not very accurate at all and should not even be considered accurate for its time however it should be noted that precision was not needed for the task that was being performed and we should let the general concept of pi that the biblical characters posses impress usPresent knowledge suggests that the concept of pi first developed in 2000 BC in two separate cultures The Babylonians used pi at a value of 258 while an entirely different culture the ancient Egyptians used pi at a value of 25681 While the biblical calculation of pi3 most likely came from crude measurement there is strong reason to believe because of the relative accuracy of the values that the Babylonians and Egyptians found pi by means of mathematical equations In the Egyptian Rhind Papyrus which is dated around 1650 BC there is strong evidence supporting that the Egyptians used 4892 316 for their value of pi At that point in history and for the majority of modern history pi was not seen as an irrational number as it is todayThe next culture that investigated pi was the ancient Greeks Starting in 434 BC Greeks were unraveling the mysteries of pi The mathematician Anaxagoras made an unsuccessful attempt at finding pi which he called squaring the circle and in 414 BC 20 years after

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