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When World War II in Europe finally came to an end on May 7 1945 anew war was just beginning The Cold War denoting the open yet restrictedrivalry that developed between the United States and the Soviet Union andtheir respective allies a war fought on political economic andpropaganda fronts with limited recourse to weapons largely because offear of a nuclear holocaust1 This term The Cold War was first used bypresidential advisor Bernard Baruch during a congressional debate in 1947Intelligence operations dominating this war have been conducted by theSoviet State Security Service KGB and the Central Intelligence AgencyCIA representing the two power blocs East and West respectively thatarose from the aftermath of World War II Both have conducted a variety ofoperations from large scale military intervention and subversion to covertspying and surveillance missions They have known success and failure TheBay of Pigs debacle was soon followed by Kennedys ft handling of the Cubanmissile crisis The decisions he made were helped immeasurably byintelligence gathered from reconnaissance photos of the high altitude planeU-2 In understanding these agencies today I will show you how theseagencies came about discuss past and present operations and talk about The CIA was a direct result of American intelligence operations duringWorld War II President Franklin D Roosevelt recognized the need tocoordinate intelligence to protect the interests of the United States In1941 he appointed William J Donovan to the head of the Office ofStrategic Services OSS with headquarters in London Four departments madeup the OSS Support Secretariat Planning and Overseas Missions Each ofthese departments directed an array of sections known as operationgroups This organization had fallen into the disfavor of many involved inthe federal administration at this time This included the director of theFederal Bureau of Investigation FBI J Edgar Hoover who did not likecompetition from a rival intelligence organization With the death ofRoosevelt in April of 1945 the OSS was disbanded under Truman anddepartments were either relocated or completely dissolved Sovietintelligence began with
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